Dramatic Vocalise Database — Bibliography

Adami, Giuseppe, ed. Epistolario. Milan: Mondadori, 1928.

Adams, Byron. Review of Vaughan Williams and the Vision of Albion, by Wilfrid Mellers. Musical Quarterly 74 (1990): 629–35.

Anderson, Robert. “Delius, Frederick.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 10 December 2006).

Anonymous. “Academy and College Notes.” Musical Times 78 (1937): 1063–65.

———. “The Birmingham Festival.” Musical Times 53 (1912): 722–27.

———. “‘A Mass of Life.’” Musical Times 50 (1909): 465–66.

———. “Occasional Notes.” Musical Times 53 (1912): 646–48.

———. “Reviews of Music.” Music & Letters 10 (1929): 207–10.

Antcliffe, Herbert. “Prometheus in Music.” Musical Quarterly 12 (1926): 110–20.

Auber, Daniel-François-Esprit. Haydée. Plate B.a. 4823. Paris: E. Benoit ainé, n.d.

———. La sirène. First edition; Plate T. M. 1551. Paris: E. Troupenas, 1844.

———. La sirène. Plate T.M.1550. Paris: Maison Troupenas, 1844.

Bartók, Béla. Essays. Edited by Benjamin Suchoff. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976.

———. Der Wunderbare Mandarin, op. 19. Vienna and London: Universal Edition, 2000.

Baughan, E[dward] A[lgernon]. “On the Modern Language of Music.” Musical Times 55 (1914): 231–34.

Bellman, Jonathan, ed. The Exotic in Western Music. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1998.

Berlioz, Hector. Le Ballet des ombres, ronde nocturne. Edited by Ian Rumbold. Hector Berlioz: New Edition of the Complete Works, vol. 14. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1996.

———. Correspondance Générale, vol. 1. Edited by Pierre Citron. Paris: Flammarion, 1972.

———. Memoirs of Hector Berlioz from 1803 to 1865, Comprising His Travels in Germany, Italy, Russia, and England. Translated by Rachel and Eleanor Holmes. Annotation and revised translation by Ernest Newman. 1932. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1966.

———. Tristia, op. 18. Edited by David Charlton. Hector Berlioz: New Edition of the Complete Works, vol. 12b. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1993.

———. Les Troyens, op. 5. Edited by Hugh Macdonald. Hector Berlioz: New Edition of the Complete Works, vol. 2b. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1969.

———. Les Troyens: Supplement. Edited by Hugh Macdonald. Hector Berlioz: New Edition of the Complete Works, vol. 2c. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1969.

Bianchi, Michele. “Il ‘coro muto’ della «Madama Butterfly»,” Nuova rivista musical Italiana 32 (1998): 264–83.

Bónis, Ferenc. “‘The Miraculous Mandarin’: The Birth and Vicissitudes of a Masterpiece.” In The Stage Works of Béla Bartók. London: John Calder; New York: Riverrun, 1991.

Boulanger, Lili. Clairi`res dans le ciel. The New London Chamber Choir. James Wood. Notes by Christopher Palmer. Hyperion CDA 66726, 1994.

———. Les Sirènes. New York and London: G. Schirmer, 1981.

Boulez, Pierre. Orientations. Edited by Jean-Jacques Nattiez. Translated by Martin Cooper. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Boult, Sir Adrian. “Interpreting ‘The Planets.’” Musical Times 111 (1970): 263–64.

Bowers, Faubion. “Preface.” Prometheus: Poem of Fire, by Alexander Scriabin. New York: Dover, 1995.

Boyle, Andrew J. “The Song of the High Hills.” Studia Musicologica Norvegica 8 (1982): 143–48.

Briscoe, James. Claude Debussy: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland, 1990.

Budden, Julian. The Operas of Verdi. Revised edition, vol. 1: From Oberto to Rigoletto, 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.

C [pseud.]. “London Concerts.” Musical Times 66 (1925): 1024–25.

Calvocoressi, Michel-Dimitri. Music and Ballet. 1934. Reprint, London: Faber and Faber, 1978.

Caplet, André. Le Miroir de Jésus: Mystères du Rosaire. Paris: Durand, 1924.

Carley, Lionel. Delius: The Paris Years. Rickmansworth, England: Triad, 1975.

Carner, Mosco. Of Men and Music: Collected Essays and Articles. London: Williams, 1944.

———. Puccini: A Critical Biography. 3rd ed. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992.

Casini, Claudio. Giacomo Puccini. Torino: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1978.

Charlton, David. “Chapter 6, Opera: 1850–1890; (b) France.” In Romanticism (1830–1890). Edited by Gerald Abraham. New Oxford History of Music, vol. 9. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Clutsam, G[eorge] H[oward]. “The Harmonies of Scriabine.” Musical Times 54 (1913): 156–58.

Colles, Henry Cope. Essays and Lectures. 1945. Reprint, New York: Books for Libraries, 1970.

Conati, Marcello, ed. Encounters with Verdi. Translated by Richard Stokes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Corrodi, Hans. “Othmar Schoeck’s Songs.” Music & Letters 29 (1948): 129–39.

Cox, Alex. 10,000 Ways to Die: A Director’s Take on the Spaghetti Western. Harpenden: Kamera, 2009.

Darby, Ken. Hollywood Holyland: The Filming and Scoring of The Greatest Story Ever Told. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992.

Deane, Basil. Albert Roussel. London: Barrie and Rockliff, 1961.

Debussy, Claude. Nocturnes. New York: Dover, 1983.

———. Pelléas et Mélisande. New York: Dover, 1985.

———. “Printemps.” La Revue musicale (15 February 1904): 25–32; (1 March 1904): 33–40; (15 March 1904): 41–48.

Delius, Frederick. Appalachia: Variations on an Old Slave Song with Final Chorus. London and New York: Boosey & Hawkes, 1939.

———. Brigg Fair and Other Favorite Orchestral Works. New York: Dover, 1997.

———. A Mass of Life. Revised and edited by Sir Thomas Beecham. Complete Works, vol. 10. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1987.

———. A Song of the High Hills. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and Luton Choir. Sir Thomas Beecham. Notes by David Hall. RCA Victor LVT-1045, n.d.

———. To Be Sung of a Summer Night on the Water. Edited by Sir Thomas Beecham. Complete Works, vol. 17. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1952.

Demuth, Norman. Albert Roussel. 1947. Reprint, Westport, CT: Hyperion, 1979.

Descant [pseud.]. “‘Flos Campi.’” Musical Times 71 (1930): 353.

Evans, Edwin. “London Concerts.” Musical Times 72 (1931): 744–45.

———. “Modern British Composers VI.—Gustav Holst (Continued).” Musical Times 60 (1919): 588–92.

de Falla, Manuel. La vida breve, adaptation française de Paul Milliet. Paris: Max Eschig, 1913.

Foltmann, Niels Bo. “Preface.” Symphony no. 3, by Carl Nielsen. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1999.

Foss, Hubert J. Ralph Vaughan Williams: A Study. New York: Oxford University Press, 1950.

Gara, Eugenio, ed. Carteggi Pucciniani. Milan: Ricordi, 1958.

Gelleny, Sharon. “Cyclic Form and Debussy’s Nocturnes.” Cahiers Debussy 20 (1996): 25–40.

Gillies, Malcolm. “Bartók, Béla.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 3 January 2007).

Goldmark, Daniel. “Music, Film and Vaughan Williams.” In Vaughan Williams Essays. Edited by Byron Adams and Robin Wells. Aldershot, Hants; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003.

Grace, Harvey [Feste, pseud.]. “Interludes.” Musical Times 61 (1920): 240–42.

Gradenwitz, Peter. “The Religious Works of Arnold Schönberg.” Music Review 21 (1960): 19–29.

Greene, Richard. Holst: The Planets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Harmetz, Aljean. The Making of The Wizard of Oz. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.

Head, Raymond. “Holst and India (I): ‘Maya’ to ‘Sita.’” Tempo 158 (1986): 2–7.

———. “Holst—Astrology and Modernism in ‘The Planets.’” Tempo 187 (1993): 15–22.

Herlin, Denis. “Foreword.” Nocturnes, by Claude Debussy. Translated by Orhan Memed. In Œuvres Complètes de Claude Debussy, série V, vol. 3. Paris: Durand, 1999.

———. “Sirens in the Labyrinth: Amendments in Debussy’s Nocturnes.” Translated by Sidney Buckland. In Debussy Studies, edited by Richard Langham Smith. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Holloway, Robin. “Schoeck the Evolutionary.” Tempo 218 (2001): 2–6.

Holst, Gustav. The Planets. New York: Dover, 2000.

———. Sāvitri. The City of London Sinfonia. Richard Hickox. Notes by Colin Matthews. Hyperion CDH55042, 2000.

———. Sāvitri: An Episode from the Mahabharata, op. 25. Revised by Imogen Holst. London: Faber Music, 1973.

Holst, Imogen. “Introduction.” The Planets, op. 32, by Gustav Holst. In Collected Facsimile Edition of Manuscripts of the Published Works, vol. 3. London: Faber Music, 1979.

Honegger, Arthur. Le Roi David. Lausanne: Fœtisch Frères, 1952.

Howells, Herbert. “Vaughan Williams’s ‘Pastoral’ Symphony.” Music & Letters 3 (1922): 122–32.

Hughes, Howard. Once Upon a Time in the Italian West: The Filmgoers’ Guide to Spaghetti Westerns. London; New York: I. B. Tauris, 2004.

d'Indy, Vincent. Cours de composition musicale. Paris: Durand, 1912.

———. Fervaal. Paris: Durand, 1899.

Ives, Charles. Symphony no. 4. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1965.

———. Symphony no. 4. Tanglewood Festival Chorus and Boston Symphony Orchestra. Seiji Ozawa. Notes by Eric Salzman. Deutsche Grammophon DG 423 243-2, 1977.

Kalisch, Alfred. “The Beecham Opera Season.” Musical Times 55 (1914): 469–70.

———. “London Concerts.” Musical Times 61 (1920): 247–48.

———. “London Concerts.” Musical Times 61 (1920): 820–23.

Kennedy, Michael. “Riders to the Sea.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 20 June 2007).

———. “The Unknown Vaughan Williams.” Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association 99 (1972–73): 31–41.

———. The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Kimbell, David R. B. Verdi in the Age of Italian Romanticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Kimmel, William. “Vaughan Williams’s Melodic Style.” Musical Quarterly 27 (1941): 491–99.

Kirkpatrick, John. “Preface.” Symphony no. 4, by Charles Ives. New York: Associated Music Publishers, 1965.

Labelle, Nicole. “Roussel, Henri.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 20 November 2006).

Laloy, Louis. La Musique retrouvée, 1902–1927. Paris: Librairie Plon, 1928.

———. “Preface.” Printemps, by Claude Debussy. La Revue musicale (15 February 1904): 25.

Lang-Becker, Elke. Debussy Nocturnes. München: Wilhelm Fink, 1982.

Lawton, David. “Tonal Structure and Dramatic Action in Rigoletto.” Bollettino dell’istituto di studi Verdiani 3 (1982): 1559–81.

Lesure, François, and Roger Nichols, eds.. Debussy Letters. Translated by Roger Nichols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Locke, Ralph. “Auber’s Siren Enchants Anew, in a Long-Needed First Recording.” Opera Today, February 9, 2021.

Lunn, John E., and Ursula Vaughan Williams. Ralph Vaughan Williams: A Pictorial Biography. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Macdonald, Hugh. “Padmavati: Oeuvre Lyrique ou Choregraphique?” In Albert Roussel: Musique et Esthétique. Translated and edited by Manfred Kelkel. Paris: J. Vrin, 1989.

———. Skryabin. London: Oxford University Press, 1978.

Macdonald, Nesta. Diaghilev Observed by Critics in England and the United States 1911–1929. New York: Dance Horizons, 1975.

Mallach, Alan. Pietro Mascagni and His Operas. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2002.

Marks, Martin Miller. “Elfman, Danny.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 5 November 2006).

Mascagni, Pietro. Iris. New York: Ricordi, 1898.

———. Iris. Chor des Bayerischen Rundfunks and Münchner Rundfunk-orchester. Giuseppe Patané. Notes and translation by Barrymore L. Scherer. CBS M2K 45526, 1989.

Mason, Colin. “Vaughan Williams’s ‘Sinfonia Antartica.’” Musical Times 94 (1953): 128.

McCorkle, Brooke. “Spectacle Fantastique: Audio-Visual Technologies and Early Adaptations of Verne’s De la terre a la lune.” (Paper read at Cult Adaptations: A one-day symposium, De Montfort University, Leicester, 25 November 2009).

McKinnon, James. “Jubilus.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 5 September 2006).

McNaught, W. “Choral Notes and News.” Musical Times 61 (1920): 253–54.

Mellers, Wilfrid. Review of Symphony no. 4, by Charles Ives. American Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski. Musical Times 107 (1966): 610.

Morricone, Ennio. The Ennio Morricone Anthology: A Fistful of Film Music. Notes by Jerry McCulley. Rhino Records DRC2-1237, 1995.

Myers, Rollo. Ravel: Life and Works. New York: T. Yoseloff, 1960.

Nauman, Philip D. “Sirènes, Spectres, Ombres: Dramatic Vocalization in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 2009.

Neighbour, O[liver] W[ray]. “Schoenberg, Arnold.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 9 May 2007).

Newcomb, Anthony. “New Light(s) on Weber’s Wolf’s Glen Scene.” In Opera and the Enlightenment. Edited by Thomas Bauman and Marita Petzoldt McClymonds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Nielsen, Carl. Symphonies 1–3. San Francisco Symphony and Chorus. Herbert Blomstedt. Notes by Andrew Huth. Decca 289 460 985-2, 1999.

———. Symphony no. 3. Copenhagen: Wilhelm Hansen, 1999.

Noble, Jeremy. “Portrait of Debussy—I: Debussy and Stravinsky.” Musical Times 108 (1967): 22–25.

Ó Madagáin, Breandán. “Irish Vocal Music of Lament and Syllabic Verse.” In The Celtic Consciousness. Edited by Robert O’Driscoll. New York: George Braziller, 1981.

Orenstein, Arbie, ed.. A Ravel Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Orledge, Robert. “Caplet, André.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 20 November 2006).

———. “Fervaal.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 5 March 2005).

Ottaway, D. Hugh. “‘Riders to the Sea.’” Musical Times 93 (1952): 358–60.

———. “Vaughan Williams and the Pastoral Symphony.” Musical Times 90 (1949): 404.

Ottaway, Hugh, and Alain Frogley. “Vaughan Williams, Ralph.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 10 December 2006).

Palmer, Christopher. The Composer in Hollywood. New York: Marion Boyars, 1990.

———. Dimitri Tiomkin: A Portrait. London: T. E. Books, 1984.

———. Impressionism in Music. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973.

Pavie, Théodore. La Légende de Padmani, reine de Tchitor, d’après texts hindis et hindouis. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1856.

Peacock, Kenneth. “Synesthetic Perception: Alexander Scriabin’s Color Hearing.” Music Perception 2 (1985): 483–505.

Prendergast, Roy. A Neglected Art : A Critical Study of Music in Films. New York : New York University Press, 1977.

Prod’homme, Jacques-Gabriel. “‘Robin des Bois’ et ‘Le Freischütz’ à Paris (1824–1926).” Le Menestrel (22 October 1926): 437–40; (29 October 1926): 449–51.

Prokofiev, Sergey. L’Amour des trios oranges. Melville, NY: Belwin Mills, 1979.

———. The Fiery Angel. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1994.

———. The Fiery Angel. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra. Neeme Järvi. Notes by Richard Taruskin. Deutsche Grammophon DG 431 669-2, 1991.

———. Five Songs Without Words. Melville, NY: Belwin Mills, 1979.

Puccini, Giacomo. Madam Butterfly. Milan: Ricordi, 1905.

———. Madama Butterfly. New York: Dover, 1990.

Purdy, A. E. “The Human Voice as an Orchestral Instrument.” Musical Times 71 (1930): 252.

Ravel, Maurice. Daphnis et Chloé. New York: Dover, 1989.

Rhodes, Gary Don. White Zombie: Anatomy of a Horror Film. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2001.

Richards, Guy. Review of, Narcisse et Echo, by Nikolai Tcherepnin. The Hague Choir, Residentie Orchestra, The Hague, Genady Rozhdestvensky. Tempo 213 (2000): 55–58.

Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay. Mlada. Leipzig: Belaèieff, 1891.

Rosar, William H. “Lost Horizon: An Account of the Composition of the Score.” Film Music Notebook 4 (1978): 40–52.

Roussel, Albert. Aeneas, op. 54. Paris: Durand, 1954.

———. Évocations, op. 15. 1912. Reprint. Miami, FL: Kalmus, 1988.

———. Lettres et écrits. Edited by Nicole Labelle. Paris: Flammarion, 1987.

———. Padmâvatî. Paris: Durand, 1919.

Rózsa, Miklós. Double Life: The Autobiography of Miklós Rózsa. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1982.

Schmitt, Florent. Salammbô, Trois Suites d’Orchestre, op. 76. Orchestre National d’Ile de France and Choeur de l’Armée Française. Jacques Mercier. Notes by Catherine Lorent. Translated by Roger Greaves. RCA Victor 74321 733 952, 2000.

———. La Tragédie de Salomé. Paris: Durand, 1913.

Schnapp, Friedrich. “Sources and Suppositive Reviews.” In E. T. A. Hoffmann’s Musical Writings: Kreisleriana, The Poet and the Composer, Music Criticism. Edited by David Charlton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Schnittke, Alfred. Concerto for Mixed Chorus; Voices of Nature; Minnesang. Holst Singers. Stephen Layton. Notes by Dmitri Smirnov. Hyperion CDA 67297, 2002.

Schoeck, Othmar. Lebendig begraben. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1956.

———. Venus. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1953.

Schoenberg, Arnold. Prelude, op. 44. Los Angeles: Belmont, 1945, renewed 1973.

Schünemann, Georg. Der Freischütz: Nachbildung der Eigenschrift. Berlin: A. Frisch, 1943.

Scriabin, Alexander. Prometheus, Poem of Fire, op. 60. New York: Dover, 1995.

Seitz, Elizabeth A. “Manuel de Falla’s Years in Paris, 1907–1914.” Ph.D. dissertation, Boston University, 1995.

Stein, Leonard. “Preface.” Prelude, op. 44, by Arnold Schoenberg. Los Angeles, CA: Belmont, 1945, renewed 1973.

Stone, Kurt. “Ives’s Fourth Symphony: A Review.” Musical Quarterly 52 (1966): 1–16.

Stravinsky, Igor. Le Rossignol. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1962.

Synge, John Millington. The Aran Islands. Edited by Robin Skelton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Taruskin, Richard. “Le Rossignol.” In Grove Music Online. Edited by Laura Macy. http://www.grovemusic.com (accessed 5 July 2007).

Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilich. The Nutcracker. In Works, vol. 13, pt. a. Moscow: Gos. muzykalnoe izd-vo, 1955.

Thomas, Tony. Music for the Movies. 2nd ed., expanded and updated. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1997.

Thompson, Andrew. Vincent d’Indy and His World. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.

Threlfall, Lionel, and Robert Threlfall. Delius: A Life in Pictures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977.

Torrefranca, Fausto. Giacomo Puccini e l’opera internazionale. Torino: Fratelli Bocca, 1912.

Tovey, Donald. Essays in Musical Analysis, vol. 2. London: Oxford University Press, 1935.

Trend, J[ohn] B[rande]. “Savitri, an Opera from the Sanskrit.” Music & Letters 2 (1921): 345–50.

Vallas, Léon. Claude Debussy: His Life and Works. Translated by Maire and Grace O’Brien. 1933. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1973.

Vaughan Williams, Ralph. Five Mystical Songs. London: Stainer & Bell, 1911.

———. Flos Campi. London: Oxford University Press, 1928.

———. Flos Campi. English Chamber Orchestra and Corydon Singers. Matthew Best. Notes by Christopher Palmer. Hyperion CDA20420, 1990.

———. “Gustav Holst, I.” Music & Letters 1 (1920): 181–90.

———. National Music and Other Essays. 2nd ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

———. Old King Cole. London: J. Curwen, 1924.

———. Pastoral Symphony. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1924.

———. Riders to the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936, renewed 1964.

———. Riders to the Sea. Northern Sinfonia and The Sinfonia Chorus. Richard Hickox. Notes by Simon Mundy. Chandos CHAN 9392, 1995.

———. Sinfonia Antartica. London: Oxford University Press, 1953.

———. Sinfonia Antartica. Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus. Leonard Slatkin. Notes by Ursula Vaughan Williams. RCA Victor 09026-61195-2, 1993.

———. Sir John in Love. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1930.

———. Symphonies Nos. 3 and 4. London Philharmonic Orchestra. Bernard Haitink. Notes by Michael Kennedy. EMI 7243 5 56564 2 1, 1998.

———. Three Vocalises. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.

———. “Verdi—A Symposium.” Opera 2 (1951): 111–12.

———. Willow-Wood. Roderick Williams, baritone, Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Choir and Orchestra. David Lloyd-Jones. Notes by Lewis Foreman. Naxos 8.557798, 2005.

Virgil. The Aeneid. Translation and introduction by W. F. Jackson Knight.Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1956.

Walton, William. Henry V. Choristers of Westminster Cathedral, The Academy of St. Martin in the Fields Chorus and The Academy of St. Martin in the Fields. Sir Neville Marriner. Notes by Christopher Palmer. Chandos CHAN 8892, 1990.

Weber, Carl Maria von. Der Freischütz. New York: Dover, 1977.

———. Der Freischütz. Bavarian Radio Chorus and Symphony Orchestra. Rafael Kubelik. Notes by Rodney Milnes. Translated by Avril Bardoni. London 417 119-2, 1986.